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The Septuagint translation of the Old Testament began there and the Alexandrian text-type is recognized by scholars as one of the earliest New Testament types.
It had a significant Jewish population, of which Philo of Alexandria is probably its most known author. By the end of the era, Alexandria, Rome, and Antioch were accorded authority over nearby metropolitans.
90-110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria.
Caesarea, on the seacoast just northwest of Jerusalem, at first Caesarea Maritima, then after 133 Caesarea Palaestina, was built by Herod the Great, c.
25–13 BC, and was the capital of Iudaea Province (6–132) and later Palaestina Prima. Hort and Adolf von Harnack have argued that the Nicene Creed originated in Caesarea.
(For that reason she is seen as the patron saint of Archaeologists.) Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea in 325.
The traditional founding date for the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre (which guards the Christian Holy places in the Holy Land) is 313 which corresponds with the date of the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire.
When Bar Cochba was defeated, Hadrian barred Jews from the city, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, thus the subsequent Jerusalem bishops were gentiles ("uncircumcised") for the first time.